Plug-in automobiles connect to an electrical power source known as an electric vehicle charging station (EVCS) or electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE). The electrical energy is kept in a battery and used to power the car up until it runs out. There are many places where you may charge your electric car, including stores, offices, parking lots of many kinds, and even certain coops, condos, and apartment buildings. Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 charging stations are the three varieties that are offered. A cable that plugs into an outlet is included with every electric vehicle. The kind of charging station that should be installed depends on the charging needs.
A typical electric vehicle charger will supply the car with pass-through AC power from the electrical grid and a safety earth ground for charging, whether it is Level 1 (120V) or Level 2 (240V) equipment. In order to replenish the batteries, the vehicle transforms this AC power to DC electricity. An EVSE “charging station” employs multiple levels of redundant safety protections to shield the user from potential electrical and fire hazards while connecting, disconnecting, and charging the car, even if the real “battery charger” is on the vehicle. The station notifies the linked car when electricity is available and at what level.The transfer of power is then fully controlled, initiated, and taken over by the vehicle. The station will promptly stop the power transfer and de-energize the cable if an electrical fault arises.
Types of Chargers
LEVEL 1 (120 VOLT CHARGING)
The Level 1 approach is the slowest, but it’s adequate for drivers that charge overnight and do 30 to 40 miles per day. There is no need to install any equipment because every electric car comes with a cable that can be connected into a regular wall outlet. When you have enough time to charge, Level 1 is effective anywhere, including at home and at the office. Level 1 charging is suitable for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles with smaller batteries, but it may also be adequate for some owners of battery electric vehicles, depending on their daily range requirements and how long they generally leave their vehicles parked and charging. Per hour of charging, level 1 charging increases the driving range by approximately 3.5 to 6.5 miles.
LEVEL 2 (CHARGING AT 220/240 VOLT)
Level 2 charging, commonly known as electric vehicle supply equipment, is significantly faster but requires constructing a charging station (EVSE). Similar to what is necessary for an electric range or clothes dryer, installing a charging station requires a dedicated 240-volt or 208-volt electrical connection. In many homes, workplaces, and public charging stations, Level 2 is available. Any electric vehicle can plug into any Level 2 charger because it uses the same universal connector as Level 1 charging. Depending on the battery type, charger set-up, and circuit capacity, Level 2 charging increases range by 14–35 miles per hour.
DIRECT CURRENT (DC) FAST CHARGING LEVEL 3 (480-VOLT CHARGING)
The fastest fill-up is provided by DC rapid charging. Not all electric car models are capable of DC rapid charging, which makes it unsuitable for home use and necessitates a 480-volt connection. Drivers of electric vehicles can charge their vehicles rapidly and travel further thanks to the stations that offer DC fast charging, which can be found at shopping malls and frequently along busy thoroughfares. A CHAdeMO, Combined Charging System (Combo or CCS), or Tesla connector system is available with DC fast chargers. Both the CHAdeMO and Combo connectors are included on the majority of DC fast chargers. Up to 10 miles of range can be added each minute of charging time with DC fast charging, depending on the battery type, charger arrangement, and circuit capacity.