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Piling and Types of Piling Foundations Used in Construction

by Uneeb Khan
Mini Piling Contractors

What is Piling?

There are many ways to strengthen a building’s foundation; piling is the most effective. Though piling comes in many forms, Mini Piling Contractors have become highly popular, especially among domestic homeowners.

Piling is necessary for various construction reasons. For instance, if you are constructing a high-rise building, piling is essential so the building can bear the load and ensure everything is fine. Piles are inserted by either driving or boring holes in the soil.

What is Mini-Piling?

Mini piles are also known as micro piles. They are narrow in diameter, typically ranging from 100mm- 400mm. However, mini-piles are small, lightweight and inexpensive; they are incredibly sturdy and carry heavy loads.

What makes these piles different is how they are installed in the foundation.

When are Piling foundations used in construction?

The key reason for piling a foundation is to strengthen the soil before workers construct anything above the ground. However, there are several aspects to consider when using a piling foundation during construction.

Here are a few conditions when piling a foundation is necessary:

  • When the ground level is high
  • When a heavy load of a high-rise needs additional support.
  • Other types of foundations are expensive and not feasible.
  • When there is a possibility of land sliding because there is a river near the building.
  • Where there is a canal or sewage drainage system near the structure. 
  • Or where soil excavation is impossible due to poor soil conditions.
  • When it becomes impossible to keep the foundation trenches dry.

Common Piling Types in Construction

There are three standard methods of using piling types in construction, which include:

Driven Pile Foundations

Timber, concrete and steel are the most common material used to make driven pile foundations. These materials are precast before they arrive on a construction site. The contractors order prefabricated steel and timber piles so that they can directly hammer them in the soil with a piling hammer.

Moreover, this construction method is unsuitable for saturated soils with poor drainage capacity. The damp conditions discourage the compaction of the ground when we drill piles through.

Cast-in-situ Pile foundations

Cast-in-situ foundations make use of concrete piles. The contractor drill holes in the soil, place steel bars and then fill them with concrete rather than bringing in precast piles for construction. This helps them calculate the depth of the foundation’s needs according to the project’s needs. 

Combine Pile Foundations

This pile foundation is a mixture of driven and cast-in-situ pile foundations, which contains the advantages of both piles.

Mini Piling Contractors
Mini Piling Contractors

Factors to Determine Best Piling Types in Construction

The building engineers examine some factors to choose the best piling type according to the requirement and soil conditions, which includes the following:

  • The depth of excavation
  • The angles at which to drill and where piles need to be installed
  • Environmental issues impacting domestic residents.

Factors Influencing the Selection of a Type of Pile Foundation  

  • Types and loads of building’s structure
  • Properties of soil
  • The depth of the soil layer
  • Availability of materials
  • Variation in length of Mini Piling Essex required
  • Durability required
  • Budget
  • Availability of tools and equipment
  • Types of the surrounding structure

Main Types of Piling

The following are the main types of piling construction engineers consider.

  • End-bearing piles:  the bottom of end-bearing piles rests on healthy soil or rock. This type of piling is designed to bear the heavy load of a building.
  • Friction piles: these piles are cylindrical, and as the name refers, these piles use their full height to transfer and then forcefully generated into the soil. The greater the depth, the more the pile can hold more weight.
  • Bored Piles: as the name mentions, the workers bore piles into the ground and then filled them with concrete.
  • Screwed piles: these piles look like large steel screws that need to be pinned to the ground using a circular motion and regular screws pinned to other surfaces such as wood.
  • Timber piles: engineers have been using these piles for thousands of years. They are formed offsite and installed like the driving method. Furthermore, they are an affordable, efficient and safe foundation and can be used for permanent and temporary structures.
  • Steel piles:  these piles are installed using impact or vibration hammers that can easily puncture sturdy rock and soil. Moreover, they come in several size options according to your project requirement.
  • Concrete piles:  concrete piles are common in offshore construction projects. These can easily support vertical structural loads, lateral wave loads.

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